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Guidance for Funerals and Bereavement during COVID-19

Guidance for Funerals and Bereavement during COVID-19

Updated August 28, 2020


Note: During the COVID-19 pandemic, limits and directives may change quickly. Mourners and their loved ones are encouraged to check the Bereavement Association of Ontario’s COVID-19 Updates for the most recent information on gathering and capacity limits:

On September 18, 2020, the Government of Ontario responded to a resurgence in COVID-19 cases by limiting unmonitored and private social gatherings to 10 people indoors and 25 people outdoors. This limit applies to cemeteries, which must limit attendance to a maximum of 25 people (not counting funeral staff) at all funerals on cemetery property. Funeral homes will continue to follow pre-existing directives from the Bereavement Association of Ontario:

·       30 percent of the venue capacity for an indoor funeral ceremony or reception.

·       100 people for an outdoor funeral ceremony or reception.

·       Those attending must follow all public health measures, including practicing physical distancing from people who are not from their household or their established 10-person social circle.

These limits can further burden families who are already grieving. Memorials and funeral services are important for the family to experience closure and begin to heal from their loss. The ceremonies and rituals associated with this time are also sacred in both traditional and Christian faith.

Members of NAN’s COVID-19 Task Team have prepared the following document to help NAN community members honour the lives of their loved ones safely during COVID-19. NAN acknowledges that different communities will have different practices, values, and beliefs. This document is offered to support community discussion and direction; it cannot replace it.

CURRENT FUNERAL HOME PRACTICES                                                          

The following information comes from the Bereavement Association of Ontario (BAO). The BAO regulates and supports licensed funeral, burial, and cremation services across Ontario. If the funeral of your loved one will be held at a licensed funeral home, the funeral home will observe the following practices:

·       The maximum number of mourners at the funeral cannot exceed 30 percent of the capacity of the room where services are being held and only if certain conditions, including the number of staff on-site, can be met. Otherwise, the funeral home may still need to restrict attendance. 

o   The funeral home hosting the service will be able to provide specific guidance on the number of mourners they can have at the service under BAO directives.

o   Anyone planning a funeral service should consult with the funeral home about how many mourners will be allowed at the service and plan accordingly.

o   Each baby or child counts as one person.

·       Every person attending the funeral must stay at least two metres apart from each other and from persons conducting the funeral unless they are members of the same household.

o   This also applies if people are waiting outside (for example, while waiting to go in if multiple visitations have been scheduled).

·       Every person attending an indoor funeral is required to wear a mask or face covering.

·       The persons conducting the funeral must ensure that it is conducted in compliance with the advice and instructions of public health officials, such as those that involve physical distancing, cleaning or disinfecting.

·       The persons conducting the funeral must ensure that any washrooms are cleaned and disinfected frequently.

·       The Funeral Director is responsible for ensuring that the persons conducting the funeral follow all BAO measures and guidance; if you have questions about COVID-19 measures while planning or conducting a funeral, you should discuss them with the Funeral Director.

·       A coroner’s certificate and all required and proper documentation is still necessary.

o   The Chief Coroner of Ontario is working on an electronic death certificate and Coroner’s Cremation Certificates are already issued electronically.

·       Pallbearers should wear personal protective equipment (mask and gloves).

·       Some funeral homes have started to install live-streaming capabilities for mourners who are unable to attend the funeral in person. 

Mourners should also bring their own hand sanitizer or the persons conducting the funeral should ensure that handwashing or sanitizing stations are in place during the service.

FUNERALS AND SERVICES IN THE COMMUNITY                                                          

Planning for funerals and memorials should be considered during pandemic planning. This applies to both deaths from COVID-19, as well as deaths from other causes, which will, unfortunately, continue during the pandemic.

To limit the potential spread of COVID-19 and to safeguard the health of community members, communities should consider similar limits on funeral services as those outlined by the BAO.

Some cultural, social and religious practices may need to change to reduce community risk during the pandemic. What that will look like will be different in each community; here are some suggestions NAN has heard from speaking with Elders and community workers:

  • Streaming services and memorials online are options. Appropriate privacy settings should be discussed and set up prior to the service.
  • If something must be placed in the casket, such as cedar or sweetgrass, a container could be provided during the ceremony. The container could then be placed in the casket after the service by someone wearing appropriate PPE (gloves and a mask).
  • Communities can hold a larger ceremony after the COVID-19 pandemic ends to honour everyone who passed away during that time.
  • Elders can work with family members to offer ceremonies during COVID-19. The family member at the service can make offerings, while the Elder does the ceremony in their (the Elder’s) home.
  • After a funeral or service, community members can drive by the family’s house to acknowledge their loss and show support.
  • If it is important to touch the deceased as part of ceremony, consult with Elders and traditional knowledge keepers on how to reduce your exposure as much as possible if you are concerned that the deceased was in any way exposed to COVID-19.
  • Consider holding funerals outside where there is more space and better ventilation, though physical distancing rules should still be followed.
  • Mourners should practice good hand hygiene and either bring hand sanitizer (where available) or frequently wash their hands (where possible).

SAFE PRACTICES AROUND THE DECEASED – DEATH FROM COVID-19                                                       

  • Doctors and researchers do not know enough about COVID-19 to know how long the deceased remains infectious.
  • Until we know more about COVID-19, the recommendation is to treat the deceased as if  they are still infectious and take all reasonable precautions.
  • The owner or driver of any vehicle used to transport the deceased should be informed that the deceased is suspected or confirmed to be infected with COVID-19. The vehicle should be disinfected afterwards.
  • A deceased person suspected or confirmed to have COVID-19 should be placed in a body bag before transportation, and a disinfectant applied to the outside of the bag.
  • Anyone who will be handling the deceased’s body should follow best practices to reduce infection:
  • Practice proper hand hygiene before and after contact with the deceased.
    • Avoid any unnecessary movement of the deceased that may expel air from their lungs.
    • Wear appropriate PPE while handling the deceased.
      • ISC-FNIHB PPE requirements for care of the deceased, as of May 4, 2020: gown, gloves, face shield, and surgical mask.
    • Clean and disinfect all surfaces after they are finished handling the deceased.
    • Dispose or disinfect any equipment or supplies used during this time.
  • At the service, families should not touch the body of a person who has died from COVID-19 and should maintain at least 2 metres (6 feet) of distance between themselves and the deceased.
  • It is not recommended that an open casket funeral be held for someone who has passed away from COVID-19.

SAFE PRACTICES AROUND THE DECEASED – DEATH FROM OTHER CAUSES                                                          

  • It is not advisable to hug a deceased family member during this time if there exists any risk that they may have been exposed to COVID-19.  People should stay at least 2 metres (6 feet) away from the body of their loved one if this risk exists.
    • This is from an abundance of caution; it is possible that somebody who passed from causes may also have been infected COVID-19.
    • It may also be possible for one mourner to pass COVID-19 on to another; for example, someone who is infected may leave virus particles on a surface, such as a casket handle, that is then touched by another mourner.
  • Hand sanitizer should be provided (if available) to support good hand hygiene.
  • People who are able to wear a non-medical face covering should do so if the service is being conducted indoors or if physical distancing cannot be maintained outdoors.

PLANNING FOR THE WORST                                                          

When facing a pandemic, communities should also plan for the worst-case scenario: a very high number of deaths from COVID-19 that overwhelms the community. These are very difficult conversations to have. However, it is easier to determine an appropriate response before it is needed. In the worst-case scenario, community members will be grieving, and community capacity will be exhausted. Elders and knowledge keepers can help with these difficult conversations and provide guidance on a plan that respects community beliefs and values.

SUPPORTING FAMILIES AND COMMUNITIES                                                          

Family members and anyone who cared for the deceased will likely need special support during this time. They may feel lonely or experience guilt that they were not able to provide their loved one with the funeral service they wanted or the ceremonies they had expected. Some ways of providing extra support while following public health guidelines could include: 

  • Speaking to the deceased’s loved ones by phone or video chat.
  • Asking if they need anything, like food or supplies, and dropping them off at their house.
  • Sending them a card or letter.

These feelings of guilt may be experienced by the larger community as well. Mental health supports and services that can be offered virtually or through telemedicine should be shared with the community. One of these services is NAN HOPE, which offers 24/7 toll-free rapid access to confidential crisis services; navigation and connection to existing services; and rapid access to clinical and mental health counselling. NAN community members can access this service by calling 1-844-NAN-HOPE or connecting to

The NAN COVID-19 Task Team Elders have released two statements that provide guidance on mourning and bereavement during this time:

NAN Elders’ Statement on Funerals & Bereavement

NAN Elders’ Statement on Ceremonial Fires

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